Dizin Eklenmedi

Globalization, Governmentality, and Education Policy in Angola: A Discourse Approach

Received: 2014-07-30 Accepted: 2014-12-24 Published: 2015-02-15



In the wake of globalization, there are a number of studies calling for the need to stretch educational policy field beyond the nation state (Ball, 1997; Lingard, Rawolle & Taylor, 2005). Governmentality as suggested by Foucault (1991) is a powerful tool for analysis of the link between the new forms of government and the impact of discourse of globalization and the ideology of neoliberalism on education policy. Few studies have investigated the relationship between local education policy-making and governmentality in post-colonial spaces (see Fimyar, 2008; Tikly, 2003; Rizvi, 2005; Rizvi, Lingard & Lavia, 2006).  Foucault’s notion of governmentality and economic policy may be seen in sub-Saharan Africa (Clapham, 1996). This essay focuses a new Foucauldian discussion on governmentality and education policy in Angola. Previous to this essay, most Foucauldian scholars have discussed governmentality and education policy on other areas of the world (Ball, 1990; McCarthy & Dimitriadis, 2000; Pennycook, 2000, 2008; also see Besley & Peters, 2007; Larner, 2000, for governmentality and neoliberalism). While Foucault applied the concept of governmentality to a Western liberal type of government, I argue that in the context of globalization and neoliberal policy, post-colonial governments have increasingly appropriated the discourses of globalization, neoliberalism, and good governance (UNESCO, 1999). Therefore, the aim of this paper is to problematize, interrogate, and contextualize local education policy-making, donors funding of education, the discourses of globalization and neoliberalism, and how these influence educational policy-making in Angola.


Keywords: Governmentality, neoliberalism, discourse, education policy, non-governmental organizations


Please purchase to download content


Please purchase to download PDF




ADPP (2009). The International Humana People to People: Annual report 2009. Retrieved from www.humanaorg/...document/77ADPP_Angola_Report_English
Appadurai, A. (1996). Modernity at large: Cultural dimension of globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.
Apple, M. (1996). Power, meaning and identity: critical sociology of education in the United States. British Journal of Sociology of education, 17, pp. 125-144.
Apple, M. W. (1993). The politics of official knowledge; Does a national curriculum make sense? Teachers College Record, 95(2), 222-241.
Astiz, F., Wiseman, A., & Baker, D. (2002). Slouching towards decentralization: consequences of globaliztion for curricular control in national education systems. Comparative Education Review, 46(1), 66-88. Retrieved October 29, 2008, from htt://www.jstor.org/stable/3542022
Ball, S. J. (1993). What is policy? texts, trajectories and toolboxes. Discourse: the Australian journal of educational studies, 13(2), 10-17.
Ball, S. J. (1997). Policy sociology and critical social research: a personal review of recent education policy and policy research. British Educational Research Journal, 23(3), 257-274. Retrieved August 31, 2012, from htt://www.jstor.org/stable/1502044
Banya, K. (1993). Illiteracy, colonial legacy and education: The case of modern Sierra Leone. Comparative Education, 29(2), 159-170.
Banya, K. (2005).Globalization and higher education policy changes. In J. Zajda (Ed.), International handbook on globalization, education and policy research: global pedagogies and policies (pp. 147-164), Dordrecht: The Netherlands: Springer
Banya, K. (2010). Globalization, education and social justice. Comparative Education and Policy Research, 10, 15-31.
Banya, K. (2010).Globalization, social justice, and education in Africa: Neoliberalism, Knowledge capitalism in Sub-saharan Africa. In J. Zajda (Ed.), Globalization, education and social justice (pp. 15-31), Dordrecht: The Netherlands & New York: Springer Science+ Business Media B.V
Berthelemy, J. (2005). Globalization and challenges for education in least developed countries. In M. S. Sorondo, E. Malinvaud., & P. Lena (Eds.), Globalization and education (pp. 166- 189), Berlin & New York: Walter de Gruyter.
Bloom, D. (2005). Education in a globalized world. In M. S. Sorondo, E. Malinvaud., & P. Lena (Eds.), Globalization and education (pp. 59- 78), Berlin & New York: Walter de Gruyter.
Bordieu, P. (1979). Symbolic violence. Critique of Anthropology 13, 77-85
Bordieu, P. (1991). Language and Symbolic power (G. Raymond & M. Adamson, Trans.). Cambridge: Polity Press
Bule, J. (2010, October 20). Conflito levou à diversidade das linguas nacionais no país [The conflict brought the diversity of national languages into the country]. Retrieved from htt://jornaldeangola.sapo.ao/20/0/conflito_levou_a_diversity_das_linguas_nacionais_no_pais.
Burchell, G., Gordon, C., & Miller, P. (1991). (Eds.). The Foucault effect: studies in governmentality : with two lectures by and an interview with Michel Foucault. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Clapham, C. (1996). Governmentality and economic policy in Sub-Saharan Africa. Third World Quarterly, 17(4), 809-824.
Codd, J. (1988). The construction and deconstruction of educational policy documents. Journal of Education Policy, 3(3), 235-247.
Crossley, M., & Tikly, L. (2004). Postcolonial perspectives and comparative and international research in education: a critical introduction. Comparative Education, 40(2), 147-156. Retrieved September 19, 2012, from htt://www.jstor.org/stable/4134646
Feijó, A. (2010, February 03). Uma palavra sobre as línguas angolanas [A word about the Angolan languages]. Retrieved form http://jornaldeangola.sapo.ao/19/0/uma_palavra_sobre_as_linguas-angolanas.
Ferguson, J., & Gupta, A. (2002). Spatializing states: toward an ethnography of neoliberal governmentality. American Ethnologist, 29(4), 981-1002.
Foucault, M. (1972). The archaeology of knowledge; and, the discourse on language. New York: Pantheon Books.
Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and punish: the birth of the prison (2nd Vintage Books ed.). New York: Vintage Books.
Foucault, M. (1991) Politics and the study of discourse. In G. Burchel, C. Gordon, & P. Miller (Eds.), The Foucault effect: studies in governmentality with two lectures by and interview with Michel Foucault (pp.53-72), Hemel Hempstad: The University of Chicago Press.
Foucault, M. (1991). Governmentality. In G. Burchel, C. Gordon, & P. Miller (Eds.), The Foucault effect: studies in governmentality with two lectures by and interview with Michel Foucault (pp. 87-104), Hemel Hempstad: The University of Chicago Press.
Gordon, C. (1991). Governmental rationality: an introduction. In G. Burchel, C. Gordon, & P. Miller (Eds.), The Foucault effect: studies in governmentality with two lectures by and interview with Michel Foucault (pp. 1-51), Hemel Hempstad: The University of Chicago Press
House-Soremekun, B., & Falola (2011). (Eds.). Globalization and sustainable development in Africa. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
Idahosa, P.L (2008). The norms of displacement: NGOs, globalization and the state in Africa. In G. K. Kieh (Ed.), Africa and the new globalization (pp. 69-95), Hampshire, England: Ashgate Publishing Company.
Johnson, D.C. (2012). Positioning the language policy arbiter: governmentality and footing in the school district of Philadelphia. In J. W. Tollefosn (Ed.). Language policies in education: critical issues (2nd ed, pp. 116-136). New York & London: Routledge.
Johnson, D.C. (2013). Language policy. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmilla
Kamwangamalu, N. M. (2010). Vernacularization, globalization, and language economics in non-English speaking countries in Africa. Language Problems and Language Planning, 34(1), 1-23.
Larner, W. (2000). Neo-liberlaism: policy, ideology, governmentality. Studies in Political Economy, 63, 5-25.
Lemke, T. (2004). Foucault, governmentality, and critique. Journal of Economics, Culture & Society, 14(3), 49-64.
Lemke, T. (2007). An indigestible meal? Foucault, governmentality and state theory. Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory, 8(2), 43-64.
Lewis, M. P., Simons, G. F., & Fennig, C. D. (Eds.). (2013). Ethnologue: Languages of the World, (Seventeenth edition). Dallas, TX: SIL International. Retrieved November, 26, 2013 from htt://www.ethnologue.com.
Mbaku, J. M. (2008). The African debt crisis and the new globalization. In G. K. Kieh (Ed.), Africa and the new globalization (pp. 29-50),Hampshire, England: Ashgate Publishing Company.
McCarty, C., & Dimitriadis, G. (2000). Governmentality and the sociology od education: media, educational policy and the politics of resentment. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 21(2), 169-185.
Olssen, M., & Codd, J. A. (2004). Education policy globalization, citizenship and democracy. London: Sage.
Peters, M & Besley, T (2008). Why Foucault ? New directions in educational research. New York: Peter Lang Publishing
Power, M. (2003). Re-imagining postcolonial Africa: a commentary on Michael Watts' development and governmentality. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 24(1), 49-60.
Ricento, T. (2012). Political economy and English as a global language. Critical Multilingualism Studies, 1(1), 31-56.
Rizvi, F. (2005). Proceeding from AERA, 2005: postcolonial SIG AGM invited talk. University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign.
Rizvi, F., Lingard, B., & Lavia, J. (2006). Postcolonialism and education: negotiating a contested terrain. Pedagogy, Culture & Society, 14(3), 249-262.
Rust, V. D., & Jacob, J. W. (2005). Globalization and educational policy shifts. In J. Zajda (Ed.), International handbook on globalization, education and policy research: global pedagogies and policies (pp. 235-252), Dordrecht: The Netherlands: Springer.
Stensaker, B., & Harvey, L. (2011). Accountability in higher education: global perspective on trust and power. New York: Routledge.
Taylor, S. (2004). Researching educational policy and change in new times: using critical discourse analysis. Journal of Education Policy, 19(4), 433-451.
Tikly, L. (2003). Governmentality and the study of education policy in South Africa. Journal of Education Policy, 18(2), 161-174.
UNESCO (1999). Globalization and educational reform: what planners need to know. Place de Fontenoy, Paris: Martin Carnoy
Zajda, J. (2010). Globalization, social and cultural change and education reforms. In J. Zajda (Ed.), Globalization, Ideology and education policy reforms (pp. xiii-xvii). Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London & New York: Springer.

Citation Information

Cited by articles

Cited by Google Scholar

Search GoogleScholar

Citation Management Tool

Altmetric Attention Score

Full Text Views

Cited by

Ethical Obligations Journal Sevices Contact us
Copyright © 2010-2017 MacroWorld Ltd. All Rights Reserved