Dizin Eklenmedi

Students At-Risk of having Dysgraphia: Applying Assistive Technology Tools to help with Pre Writing

Received: 2014-08-20 Accepted: 2014-12-29 Published: 2015-02-15



Writing can be a challenging task for 40-75% of children who attend schools in developed countries (e.g., Canada – E.Q.A.O., 2013; O.E.C.D., 2010; U.K., 2012; U.S. – National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2011); in under-developed countries, the percentages can be even higher. The author of this study developed a mnemonic strategy to address the needs of struggling writers. The STORY mnemonic strategy offered children a means to employ various learning styles such as auditory (saying the story’s content aloud) and visual (creating an image with an iPad app to illustrate story ideas) before actually writing the text. The four 4th-grade participants (two White males and two children of Hispanic descent, a male and a female) participated in a 32-session, tier-two intervention within a single subject design framework. Educational researchers (e.g., special education, literacy) can use this methodology to analyze students’ change in ability across the timeline of a project. The results of this study indicated that all of the children demonstrated a functional relation in employing STORY for spoken/scribed content and quality, but this was not the case for their written stories; students improved in content, but quality lagged in comparison.


Keywords: Writing, technology, literacy


Please purchase to download content


Please purchase to download PDF




Alves, R. A., Limpo, T., Leal, J. P., Monteiro, C., Jesus, I., & Dias, M. (2012, July). HandSpy: A new web tool to study writing in real-time. Workshop presented at the 13th International Conference of the EARLI SIG Writing, Porto, Portugal.
Baker, S. K., Chard, D. J., Ketterlin-Geller, L. R., Apichatabutra, C., & Doabler, C. (2009). Teaching writing to at-risk students: The quality of evidence for self-regulated strategy development. Exceptional Children, 75(3), 303-318.
Baker, S., Gersten, R., & Graham, S. (2003). Teaching expressive writing to students with learning disabilities: Research-based applications and examples. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(2), 109-123.
Berninger, V. W., Abbott, R. D., Augsburger, A., & Garcia, N. (2009). Comparison of pen and keyboard transcription modes in children with and without learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 39(3), 123-141.
Berninger, V., Richards, T., Stock, P., Abbott, R., Trivedi, P., Altemeier, L., & Hayes, J. R. (2008, summer). From idea generation to idea expression in written composition: Expressing thought in language by hand. British Journal of Educational Psychology Monograph.
Boyle, B., & Charles, M. (2010). Using socio-dramatic play to support a beginning writer: 'Daniel the doctor and the bleeding ball.' International Journal of Early Years Education, 18(3), 213-225.
Canada – E.Q.A.O. (Education Quality Accountability Office). 2013. Retrieved August 12, 2014, from http://www.eqao.com/ProvincialReport/Files/13/PDF/EQAO_PR_Pe_AchievementResults_0913_Web.pdf Common core state standards. Retrieved June 2, 2013, from http://www.corestandards.org/
Deno, S. L. (2003). Developments in curriculum-based measurement. The Journal of Special Education, 37(3), 184-192.
Donovan, C. A., & Smolkin, L. B. (2006). Children's understanding of genre and writing development. In C. A. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.) Handbook of writing instruction (pp. 131-143). New York: The Guilford Press.
Doodle Buddy. (2011). San Jose, CA: Pinger, Inc.
Education Northwest. (2013). 6+1 trait writing. Retrieved June 2, 2013, from http://educationnorthwest.org/traits
Foorman, B. R. (2007). Primary prevention in classroom reading instruction. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(5), 24-30.
Freeman, J., & Sugai, G. (2013). Identifying evidence-based special education interventions from single-subject research. Teaching Exceptional Children, 45(5), 6-12.
Freilich, & Shechtman, (2010). The Arts in psychotherapy: The contribution of art therapy to the social, emotional, and academic adjustment of children with learning disabilities. The Arts in psychotherapy, 37(2), 97-105.
Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L.S., & Compton, D.L. (2004). Identifying reading disabilities by responsiveness to instruction: Specifying measures and criteria. Learning Disability Quarterly, 27(4), 216-228.
Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P., & Young, C. (2003). Responsiveness-to-instruction: Definitions, evidence, and implications for learning disabilities construct. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18(3), 157–171.
Gardner, H. (2000). Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century. New York: Basic.
Graham, S. (2008). The power of the word processing for the student writer. Wisconsin Rapids, WI: Renaissance Learning. Available at http://doc.renlearn.com/KMNet/R004215628GH546B.pdf
Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (2005). Writing better: Effective strategies for teaching students with learning difficulties. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (1989). A component analysis of cognitive strategy instruction: Effects on learning disabled students' compositions and self-efficacy. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 353-361.
Graham, S., and D. Perin. (2007a). Writing Next: Effective Strategies to Improve Writing of Adolescents in Middle and High Schools – A Report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.
Graham, S., & Perin, D. (2007b). A meta-analysis of writing instruction for adolescent students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 445-476.
Grammar and Vocabulary! [Tribal Nova Education]. (2013). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt: Boston.
Gresham, F. (2002). Responsiveness to intervention: An alternative approach to the identification of learning disabilities. In R. Bradley, L. Danielson, & D. Hallahan (Eds.), Identification of learning disabilities: Response to treatment (pp. 467–519). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Haager, D., Klingner, J., & Vaughn, S. (2007). Evidence-based practices for response to intervention. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
HandSpy website. (2013). Retrieved May 31, 2013, from http://daar.up.pt/HandSpy/
Harris, K. R., & Graham, S. (1996). Making the writing process work: Strategies for composition and self-regulation. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.
Hayes, J.R., & Flower, L.S. (1980). Identifying the organization of writing processes. In L.W. Gregg & E.R. Steinbert (Eds.), Cognitive processes in writing (pp. 3-30). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, Pub. L. No. 108-446, 118 Stat. 2647 (2004). iPad. (2013). San Diego, CA: Apple.
Jiménez-Glez, J. E., & Rodrigo-López, M. R. (1994). Is it true that differences in reading performance between students with and without ID cannot be explained by IQ? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27, 155–163.
Katahira, J. (2012). Note writing in the primary classroom. Retrieved February 15, 2012, from http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/note-writing-primary-classroom-285.html
Kennedy, C. H. (2005). Single-case designs for educational research. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Livescribe. (2013). EchoSmartpen. Oakland, CA: Anoto.
MacArthur, C. A. (2009). Reflections on research on writing and technology for struggling writers. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 24(2), 93-103.
Monteiro, C. & Leal, J. P. (2012). HandSpy: A system to manage experiments on cognitive processes in writing. In A. Simões, D. da Cruz, & R. Queirós (Eds.), SLATE'12 Symposium on Languages, Applications and Technologies (pp. 123-132): OASIcs. Doi: 10.4230/OASIcs.SLATE.2012.i
Moss, P. (2001). Art and learning disabilities. Retrieved July 15, 2012, from http://www.ldonline.org/article/5628/
Polloway, E. A., Patton, J. R., & Serna, L. (2005). Strategies for teaching learners with special needs. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
National Assessment of Educational Progress. (2011). Retrieved June 2, 2013, from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/writing/
National Center for Response to Intervention. (2013). Retrieved May 26, 2013, from http://www.rti4success.org/
National Poverty Center. (2013). Poverty in the United States: Frequently asked questions. Retrieved May 26, 2013, from http://www.npc.umich.edu/poverty/
O.E.C.D. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). (2010). Retrieved August 12, 2014, from http://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisaproducts/46619703.pdf
Rhodes, L. K. (1993). Literacy assessment: A handbook of instruments. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Saddler, B., Behforooz, B., & Asaro, K. (2008). The effects of sentence-combining instruction on the writing of fourth-grade students with writing difficulties. The Journal of Special Education, 42(2), 79-90.
Saddler, B., Moran, S., Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (2004). Preventing writing difficulties: The effects of planning strategy instruction on the writing performance of struggling writers. Exceptionality, 12, 13-17.
Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (1992). Classroom practices of mnemonic instruction: acquisition, maintenance, and generalization. Exceptional Children, 58, 219-229.
Shaywitz, S. (2003). Overcoming dyslexia: A new and complete science-based program for reading problems at any level. New York: Knopf.
Skype. (2013). Redmond: Microsoft.
Troia, G., & Graham, S. (2002). The effectiveness of a highly explicit, Teacher-directed strategy instruction routine: Changing the writing performance of students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35(4), 290-305.
U.K. – Department of Education. (2012). What is the research evidence on writing? Research Report DFE-RR238. Retrieved August 19, 2014, from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/183399/DFE-RR238.pdf
U.S. Department of Education. (2003). Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary, National Symposium on Learning Disabilities in English Language Learners, October 14-15, 2003: Symposium Summary, Washington, D.C., 2004.
U.S. Department of Education. (2011). Thirtieth annual report to congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Parts B and C. 2008. Retrieved May 26, 2013, from http://www2.ed.gov/about/reports/annual/osep/2008/parts-b-c/30th-idea-arc.pdf
U.S. – N.A.E.P. National Assessment of Educational Progress. (2011). Retrieved August 12, 2014, from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/writing/
Vygotsky, L. (1986). Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: The M.I.T. Press.

Citation Information

Cited by articles

Cited by Google Scholar

Search GoogleScholar

Citation Management Tool

Altmetric Attention Score

Full Text Views

Cited by

Ethical Obligations Journal Sevices Contact us
Copyright © 2010-2017 MacroWorld Ltd. All Rights Reserved